MADISON, Wis. -

A new survey shows the University of Wisconsin-Madison and its alumni foundation have earned more than $57 million in fiscal 2011 from licensing research innovations.

The university and the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation combined for about $1 billion in research expenditures in 2011, creating four start-ups and 156 patents.

Association of University Technology Managers conducted the survey. Association president Todd Sherer says the purpose of the survey is to measure the financial impact of federal investment in research.

The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel said research expenditures were up 4 percent nationally to $61 billion.